This is what fully-smoked salmon looks like. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
Alaska Native culture

Half-Dried Fish

K’eyoge’ is half-dried fish in Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan). Photo by Angela Gonzalez
K’eyoge’ is half-dried fish in Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan). Photo by Angela Gonzalez

I challenged readers of the Athabascan Woman Blog to help me come up with some one-word writing prompts. The prompts will help inspire me throughout the year. My goal is to do one blog post a week. Worpdress’ daily one-word prompts is originally what inspired me. I thought it would be great to make the words more related to Alaska or Alaska Native people, culture and more. I hosted a giveaway for you all to help me. Thank you to all who participated!

The first word is k’eyoge’. Thank you to Margaret David for suggesting the word. K’eyoge’ means half-dried fish in Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan). I spent my summers in fish camp along the Koyukuk River near Huslia, and we were fortunate to catch, cut and smoke a lot of fish. We would smoke the eating fish in a smoke-house. Half-dried fish is exactly has it sounds. We smoke it until it is half-way dried, and bake it or put it in the freezer.

This is what fully-smoked salmon looks like. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
This is what fully-smoked salmon looks like. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

K’eyoge’ is a little softer in consistency than fully-dried white fish or salmon. It also is half-smoked, so you get that delicious smoked flavor. We used dead cottonwood to smoke fish. It’s making me hungry thinking about it. 🙂

Have you eaten k’eyoge’? I am very grateful when I get to eat some. Sometimes potlatches are the only place to get it. Check out Susan Paskvan’s Athabascan word of the week article on cutting fish on the Fairbanks Daily Newsminer.

One-word prompts suggestion jar. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
One-word prompts suggestion jar. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

Do you have a word you would like to me to add to my suggestion jar? Comment below or send me a message on my Facebook, Instagram or Twitter pages. Be sure to like the Athabascan Woman Blog on Facebook for future giveaways.

Alaska Native culture

Taboo in Athabascan

Hutłlaanee in Denaakk'e
Hutłlaanee in Denaakk’e

Hutłlaanee mean “its taboo” in Denaakk’e or Koyukon Athabascan. I grew up learning this at a very young age. I learned what was hutłaanee from mother and late grandmother Lydia Simon of Huslia. There are many traditional beliefs to follow and if you break them it is often times hutłaanee. Koyukon Athabascans survived thousands of years with their strong belief systems.

My aunt, Irene Henry, recently pointed out one belief. When you go hunting, you don’t say, “I’m going out hunting.” We usually say we are going out or going for a boat ride. We don’t want to assume we are going to get lucky when going out hunting. We don’t want to give ourselves bad luck or wish anyone else bad luck.

When we go to a new place, we burn a tiny amount of food as a small offering and prayer. This is called anthła (not sure about the spelling). Many of beliefs are unspoken. We believe in them so strongly, we don’t talk about them too much.

My children in Anchorage don’t know as much about what is taboo. One belief I have shared with them is that woman and girls are not supposed to say the word bear, talk about it or eat it. I’m breaking the belief to share it and sometimes I just have to say it in the city. We refer to it with other words if necessary. It is hutłaanee when we say it. That particular animal is a powerful being. I respect the beliefs.

When we drop food, we say ana’sa baaba (not sure how to spell ‘ana’sa’). The phrase is like saying, precious food. A long time ago, there were starvation days. Athabascans had to preserve food and couldn’t afford to waste even a little bit. We have to respect food and take care of it. If we drop food without saying ana’sa baaba, then it could be considered hutłaanee. I still say the phrase automatically when I accidentally drop food. I might whisper it to myself in a public place in the city, but I still say it.

There are many beliefs that I learned growing up in the village. Some are harder to explain and follow than others. Some make sense. Some of them are easier to understand if you speak Denaakk’e. I practice the beliefs and traditions as much as I can, but I know there so much I don’t know. I better get researching.

Alaska life

Spirit of the Wind – Movie about George Attla to be Re-released

George Attla II was recently at an Alaska Sports Hall of Fame event where he signed autographs for new and old fans. Marlene Watson (Navajo) is a new fan. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
George Attla, Jr. was recently at an Alaska Sports Hall of Fame event where he signed autographs for new and old fans. Marlene Watson (Navajo) is a new fan. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

The Spirit of the Wind movie is being re-released this year and will be available for purchase on DVD! The movie is based on the life story of Athabascan dog musher, George Attla, Jr. of Huslia. Attla was able to overcome tuberculosis and win many dog mushing races, including the Fur Rondy sprint races. Attla has left his mark as a dog mushing champion through hard work, dedication, staying focused, staying competitive and overcoming obstacles and challenges. He is my dad’s uncle, so I’ve heard a lot of dog talk over the years. Attla is revered and respected by people all over Alaska, US, Canada and even beyond.

Three decades later, Alaskans will finally get a chance to see ‘Spirit of the Wind’ by Suzanna Caldwell via Alaska Dispatch:

The Alaska Native Heritage Center will hosted a re-release event for the movie in conjunction with the 2014 Fur Rondy.  A reception with refreshments, a special screening of the film, and for the first time a limited number of DVDs will be on sale to the public at this event!

While you won’t be able to buy it in Anchorage, you can buy it from Jade Resale Boutique in Fairbanks (729 1st Avenue, phone 907-479-5233). Jade Resale Boutique is owned by George Attla’s granddaughters.

I enjoyed hearing Martin Buser's story about George Attla, Jr.
I enjoyed hearing Martin Buser’s story about George Attla, Jr.

I met Iditarod musher Martin Buser a couple of years. It seems like whenever I say I’m from Huslia, people have stories to share about George Attla. Martin said he has learned some of the most important dog mushing lessons from George in the fewest amount of words. Martin visited George once and complained about the dogs not listening to him and running off the trail, etc. George said, “Who’s driving?” Martin said that was an important lesson for him. Yep, that’s a great lesson!

It will be great to show this classic movie to my children so they can see what it was like to grow up in interior Alaska in Athabascan country. Attla continues to race occasionally. He helps to run a Frank Attla Youth & Sled Dog Care program in memory of his late son. Through the program, he is able to pass on his knowledge and lifelong experience to the younger generation. It is great to see how the youth are discovering dog mushing. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from taking care of dogs, training them and taking on life’s challenges. They are catching the dog mushing fever!

George Attla II raced in the Cue Bifelt Memorial Dog Race in Huslia in 2013. Photo by Al Yatlin, Sr.
George Attla II raced in the Cue Bifelt Memorial Dog Race in Huslia in 2013. Photo by Al Yatlin, Sr.

About George Attla, Jr.
George Attla, Jr. is Athabascan and is from the northwest community of Huslia, Alaska. The legendary open-class sprint dog racer has won more Fur Rendezvous World Championships (10 wins) than any other musher to date. He won eight North American World Championships and nine International Sled Dog Racing Association unlimited class metals. His book, Everything I know about Training and Racing Sled Dogs, is still considered the musher’s bible. His life story became the subject of a film, Spirit of the Wind and a book of the same title has been published. In 2000 he was awarded the Best Musher of the 20th Century. In 2007, he was inducted into the first Alaska Sports Hall of Fame. 2008 marked his 50th year of competitive sled dog racing. In April 2011, he won the Bergman Sam Memorial Koyukuk River Championship in Huslia.

Find more information about George Attla, Jr., please visit:

Alaska Native culture

Athabascan Friend and Mentor

Irene Henry and late Lydia Simon playing cards in Bettles in the early 1990's. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
Irene Henry and late Lydia Simon playing cards in Bettles in the early 1990’s. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

I was talking to my mom, Eleanor Yatlin, recently about my late Grandma Lydia Simon. She mentioned that Millie Moses of Allakaket was my late grandmother’s siwogilaah. Siwogilaah means special friend or mentor in Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan). My aunt Irene Henry of Allakaket says, “It’s like a very, best friend ever.” Siwogilaah friendships are sometimes made because the parents or grandparents were friends. Another way this friendship can be formed is if someone gives a special gift. It could have also started because you were there in a time of need.

In Denaakk’e, siwogilaah is pronounced “se wo gil agh”. It means special friend or mentor.

Siwogilaah is different from gganaa’, which is the Denaakk’e word for friend.

Mom said that Helen Attla of Hughes was also a siwogilaah to my late grandma. I think Helen tanned a moose skin for her. The late Laura Mark of Huslia was a siwogilaah to my mother. Mom said, “Late Laura taught me how to tan beaver skin and cook.” Mom was encouraged to go to late Laura to ask her advice. It was great for my mom to depend on someone and to learn how to do things.

I asked my Irene Henry of Allakaket about the subject. Irene is my auntie. I always learn something when I talk to her and I often ask her advice on how to properly pronounce Denaakk’e words. Irene says she was really close to a lot to elders, especially late Mary Vent. Her mom and late Mary were close friends. Whenever there was an event going on, Irene would visit late Mary. Irene says, “One time we hung out together, the whole time we were in Hughes during a potlatch.”

Aunt Irene and I talked about common Athabascan beliefs and traditions still in use today. Some common Denaakk’e words are being used today, like basee’ (thank you) and hutlaanee (taboo). Irene says, “All the kids around here say anas baaba if they drop food. It is hutlanee for us to waste food.” I am not sure the tradition of siwogilaah is being continued as much as it was 30 years ago.

Millie Moses. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
Millie Moses. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

Millie Moses says she has two siwogilaah. The first was the late Lydia Simon of Huslia. The second one is Eliza Jones of Koyukuk. Late Lydia Simon was a like a grandmother to Millie. Late Lydia told Millie she reminded her of her late grandmother Cesa. Late Lydia once gifted Millie with a silver ladle and beaded slippers. Millie visited late Lydia whenever they were in the same places together. During potlatches or cover dishes, Millie made it a point to make sure late Lydia got some food and would deliver it if needed.

Years ago, Millie tanned a moose skin. At the time, Eliza Jones was teaching Denaakke’ in Allakaket. Millie gifted Eliza with a part of the tanned skin. That was the only moose skin Millie ever tanned, and she said giving it to Eliza was one of the best things she has ever done. Eliza was touched by the gift. Since then, Millie and Eliza have been special friends. Eliza has gifted Millie with salmon (jarred and smoked). Millie makes a point to visit Eliza whenever they are in the same place.

I don’t know of too many younger people who are continuing this tradition of having a siwogilaah, but I know special friendships continue. My sister, Sheri, has good friends that she considers siwogilaah. The younger generation can certainly benefit from this type of friendship. It is really about survival and friendship. I’m still learning what it means.

What siwogilagh means to Sharon Yatlin. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
What siwogilagh means to Sharon Yatlin. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
Alaska Native/Indigenous People

Remembering Bernice Joseph – An Alaska Native Leader

Bernice Joseph lost her battle with pancreatic cancer Tuesday. This is heartbreaking news from interior Alaska. Bernice was Koyukon Athabascan from Nulato, and had a big family and had may friends all over Alaska. She was a great mother, wife, daughter, sister, friend, mentor, leader, speaker, advocate and nice person. Bernice had a great smile and a great laugh.

Bernice Joseph at WEIO
Bernice Joseph was a winner of the Race of the Torch-Women in 1993. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

One of my earliest memories of Bernice was when she raced for the torch in the World Eskimo-Indian Olympics (WEIO) footrace in Fairbanks over the years. She was a fierce competitor and challenged others. I first got to know her when she served on the queen pageant committee for Miss WEIO in the early 1990s. Bernice was not afraid to speak up with her thoughts and ideas. You just knew she would follow through with actions to put those ideas into reality. She had a great level of professionalism that people took notice of and she often raised through the ranks at many organizations and boards as a result.

Bernice was as beautiful on the inside as she was on the outside. Her smile brightened a room and you felt like you were home. Bernice acknowledged everyone she came into contact with no matter to their station in life. She had a great ability to empower people and encourage them to reach for their goals.

Bernice Joseph spoke at the Rural Providers' Conference held in Fairbanks in June 2013. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
Bernice Joseph spoke at the Rural Providers’ Conference held in Fairbanks in June 2013. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

I always enjoyed listening to her speak and inspire people. As the former vice chancellor of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), she inspired many students. In recent years, I got to see her in Anchorage when she attended board meetings for the Rural Alaska Community Action Program, Inc. (RurAL CAP). As usual, she spoke up in meetings and advocated for rural Alaskans. Bernice was the whole package. She was a great ambassador for Alaska Native people. She was a great speaker and storyteller. Bernice had a strong passion for education, and she was at the decision-making table to enact initiatives to support Alaska Natives pursuing their education.

Many people shared Facebook posts and emails and said what a wonderful person Bernice was. Some friends shared these kind words about Bernice:

“Bernice Joseph was the greatest boss and teacher I ever was blessed to have worked and learned from. She was strong, kind, hardworking, intelligent, wise,…I could write books about all she was. I loved and deeply respected all she did as did everyone she touched. I pray for her and her family. Rest in Peace Bernice. I promise I will teach every kid I can the things you taught me. For you might have left us for heaven, but the beauty left behind still grows.” – Travis Cole

“Bernice was one of my first bosses/mentors/role models. Her keen sense of humor and laughter always lifted up my spirit and I watched her with great admiration as she brought together community, inspired, taught, provided an amazing example of healthy living. We loved to tease each other and it was always a joy to be around her. She made me feel like I was capable of so much more and believed in me at a pivotal time of my teenage years. My heart goes out to all those that are feeling this loss. May you rest well dear friend. Each time I put on my running shoes, I will think of your strength.” -Princess Daazhraii Johnson

“Thinking of my friend Bernice Joseph and sending love and light to her family. Like the loads of others, she was a role model to me, a person who led by example with a bright, beautiful smile. Really going to miss seeing her, but her legacy of empowering Native people to achieve their educational goals will remain with us forever!” – Jessica Black

“I first met Bernice at WEIO over 20 years ago. She was a runner and so was I. I wanted to be as fast as she was. Because of her I did eventually win the race of the torch. Later our lives would cross again as I went after my degree in education at UAF through their rural and correspondence classes. When I saw she was in charge of Distance Education I thought what an awesome leader! I am so happy I was able to hug Bernice at WEIO this summer. The games brought us together and they were the last place I saw her. Today when I run she will be in my thoughts and these tears I shed are for our loss of such an incredibly inspiring woman!” – Noel Strick

“Over the past year, Bernice Joseph held space in many of our hearts, thoughts, and prayers. She influenced many peoples lives in many meaningful ways. She was a true leader, a friend, and an inspiration among our people. Bernice was my boss as a teenager and later served on my graduate committee, she was committed to truth and seeing through real change in the lives of our people. May she rest in eternal peace. Prayers and love to her family.” -Evon Peter

Here is a message from UAF Chancellor Brian Rogers:

“Today, our community and state lost an inspiring leader, mentor and educator: Former vice chancellor Bernice Joseph passed away this morning after a long and courageous battle with cancer. Bernice served as vice chancellor for rural, community and native education, and executive dean of the College of Rural and Community Development. Her career was marked by her dedication to education and to Alaska’s students, whether they hailed from her home village of Nulato or from our state’s urban centers. She was a great university leader and a role model for Alaska Native people in higher education. Her contributions to the university, the Interior and Alaska will serve as a legacy for generations. She truly made a difference in the lives of thousands of people. Our sincere condolences go out to Bernice’s family. Her passing is a tremendous loss to the university and Alaska. Her family and friends will hold several events in her memory in the coming days. On Wednesday, Jan. 8, a one-mile memorial walk will begin at 6 p.m. at the Carlson Center. And, on Thursday, Jan. 9, a celebration of life will begin at 10 a.m. at the Sacred Heart Cathedral. In lieu of flowers, the family has suggested that memorial contributions be made to the Doyon Foundation in Bernice’s name. Those who wish to send condolences can do so to the following address: Stewart Joseph P.O. Box 83651 Fairbanks, AK 99708”

Stewart and Bernice Joseph were in Anchorage in December 2012. Photo by Angela Gonzalez
Stewart and Bernice Joseph were in Anchorage in December 2012. Photo by Angela Gonzalez

At her keynote speech at the 2005 Alaska Federation of Natives Convention, Bernice acknowledged the strides made with education, but reminded people that there was more to be done. Bernice said:  “Our people have come a long way from only a few decades of Western education, to developing our own curriculum, to be recognized for traditional knowledge through honorary degrees and be recognized on Commissions, Boards, and now the Effie Kokrine School to further help us to maintain our sense and knowledge of self, while living in a western world, but empowered through cultural identity and cultural presence to stand tall and be counted for all of our contributions to education, health, politics, economics and science. We have done a lot, but we have only just begun.” – Bernice Joseph on an excerpt from her speech (courtesy of the Alaska Native Knowledge Network).

As a result of her hard work in her personal and professional life, Bernice was the recipient of many awards and acknowledgements. She always made people feel special, and she will be missed by many, near and far. She was a living example of what Alaska Native people could accomplish. Ana basee’ Bernice for a life well-lived and shared with us.